This research will examine and analyse the causes of the resurgence of fascist organizations in Russia and Germany and compare them with the context that contributed to the emergence of fascism in the first half of the 20th century. Nazi movements in Germany have never totally disappeared. They lost popularity since World War II but since the reunification, anti-immigration and ultranationalist parties in Germany gained support and neo-Nazi demonstrations can be seen on a more frequent basis. As for Russia, this country is known for its centuries old antisemitism and its weak traditions for democracy that neo-Nazi organizations use to gain more support. This research will focus on far right nationalist movements and not on anarchist and communist groups that have authoritarian and anti-semitic ideologies.